Control №2 England (ABOUT NEW DEBATE OVER ASPIRIN)
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1. Translate the following sentences, paying attention to the shape and Present Participle Past Participle.
1. Many experiments «are now beginning to throw more light on human illnesses.
2. While performing the experiments the researches supported the hypotheses.
3. Doctors use many drugs influencing malignant tumors.
4. Alcoholism is reaching epidemic proportions in some parts of the world.
2. Put the verb in brackets into the Present Perfect and translate these proposals.
1. I know London perfectly well. I (to be) there several times.
2. He is not unemployed now. He (find) a job.
3. She has a headache She (have) a headache since she got up.
4. Monica (give up) smoking recently.
5. Kate (to go) to the cinema two hours ago and she not (to come) back yet.
3. Select the correct form of the verb in the Past Indefinite or Present Perfect.
1. Linda has lost her insurance policy. Is the second time this ....
has happened happens happened
2. Where's the book I give you? What ... with you?
have you done have known knew
3. We're good friends. We ... each other for a long time.
know have known knew
4. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Simple Passive and translate into Russian proposal. Form negative and interrogative sentence.
1. The students (to give) a test on botany.
2. All things (to arrange) in an approximate order.
3. The age of a woman never (to ask).
4. A very rich harvest of fruit (to gather) every year at our farm.
5. Where the talks (to hold) next week?
6. This novel (to translate) in to Russian two years ago.
7. The plans proposed did not meet the requirements of our department
8. When subjected to high temperature, aluminum loses its strength rapidly.
9. The Lenin library holds first place in the world for its number of readers.
10. The atomic weight as seen from the table refers to that substance.
5. Read and translate the text in writing.
ABOUT NEW DEBATE OVER ASPIRIN
Government health agencies seems suddenly concerned about aspirin. Why this Interest In a drug that's been In wide use for more than half a century?
Aspirin is in the news because of two studies - one just getting under way by the National Heart and Lung Institute, the other being wound up by the Food and Drug Administration. Both stem from recent reports on just what aspirin does to a patient's blood. Present research indicates that aspirin - acetylsalicylic acid - stops or delays formation of the tiny solid particles called "platelets" that are in the blood.
Where is research likely to lead?
Hopefully, the Heart and Lung Institute study will determine once and for all whether aspirin really helps ward off the commonest form of heart attack.
The Institute is seeking to enroll more than 4.000 heart-attack victims in a program involving daily use of aspirin over a long period.
On the other hand, the In-depth study by the FDA will contain cautions against both the misuse and overuse of aspirin.
What evidence is there that aspirin acts against heart attacks?
Dr. Dale G. Friend of Harvard Medical School writes in Archives of Surgery: "Modern studies postulate that thrombi (blood clots) arc started, maintained and extended by platelet aggregation. Thus, such arterial thrombosis processes as peripheral vascular thrombosis (clotting in blood vessels outside the heart), coronary thrombosis and cerebral vascular thrombosis are at least to a certain extent a result of platelet aggregation ".
Research shows that aspirin really does inhibit release of platelets. It can be taken over long periods without apparent bad effects. It is not addictive, nor does the user need ever-increasing doses to get results.
In general, the same ability to stop blood from clotting that makes aspirin a hopeful drug for heart patients makes it dangerous for people with bleeding problems. These include, hemophiliacs, ulcer sufferers, people with internal blood loss.
- Do not take more than two standard-sized pills at a time, every three to four hours-nor more than 12 in a day - for headache, fever, arthritis or rheumatism pain.
- Do not take aspirin, even in the recommended dosages, more than 10 days in succession.
- Do not take it if suffering from stomach problems, asthma or bleeding problems.
- Stop taking aspirin at once if it causes dizziness, ringing in the ears or chest pain. These could be signs of a dangerous allergic reaction to the drug
Do these cautions mean that aspirin is really not safe?
Actually, aspirin is one of the safest drugs known for low-grade pain and nagging aches. That is why doctors, alter hearing a patient's symptoms often advise: "Take two aspirins and call me in the morning if the pain is not better." They know that aspirin in mild doses usually brings relief, seldom does any damage.
Just what is aspirin?
It is a synthetic compound - acetylsalicylic acid - which is made from petrochemicals. That is the product used today. But its origin goes back to the dawn of medicine, when primitive peoples discovered that chewing the bark, leaves or shoots of certain plants brought relief front pain.
One of the commonest of these natural analgesics was bark of the willow tree - salix in botany.
Early in the nineteenth century, organic chemists, mostly German, isolated the pain-killing agent in willow bark and called it salicylate - after salix. Around mid-century, scientists discovered an easy way to get salicylate was to distill flowers of the spirea plant. And it is from spirea that aspirin got its name.
Further steps were necessity before it became today's universal drug, however.
To be used easily by the body, salicylate bad to be is acid form - salicylic acid. This was further modified by using acetic acid- the active agent in vinegar - to produce acetylsalicylic acid - today's aspirin.